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The Chinese authorities charge him of promoting Tibetan independence and will not allow him to come back into the country or he will face arrest. In May , a Tibetan activist known as Tashi Wangchuk was sentenced to prison for five years as he voiced his concerns over that Tibetan culture was being destroyed by the Chinese government. Amnesty International denounced this sentencing to be "beyond absurd" but his release is still dated to be in Xinjiang: In the region of Xinjiang, Uighur separatists have engaged in acts of violence to promote independence.

These Chinese Muslims have garnered support from neighboring areas in central Asia and Turkey both politically and economically. However, many of these efforts have been shut down by Chinese officials. The Xinjiang region is facing large scale immigration of Han Chinese people but the Uighurs still make up 8 out of the 19 million inhabitants.

In August , a UN human rights panel cited "creditable reports" that more than one million people in the region were being held in counter extremism centers in Xinjiang but Chinese officials claimed that only "religious extremist" Uighurs were undergoing re-education and resettlement. China-Russia Relations: China and the Soviet Union signed an alliance in building on their communist relations that dated back to the s. In the wake of the s Sino-Soviet split, and for 25 years after the split, the border between China and Russia was one of the most unfriendly borders in the world.

At one point over "one and a half million troops armed with nuclear weapons" were installed along the two sides of the border. Relations improved in the mid s but this is due to Russia's decrease in power and threat to the Chinese government. Due to China's ancient history and central location in the geography of Asia, it is surrounded by potential enemies and many complicated rivalries.

The government plays the fine line between domination and cooperation in order to preserve their national identity and borders. However, due to the nature of their political geography, the borders are very much volatile and disputes continue to exist in different areas of the border.

Tajikistan: On January 13, , the country of Tajikistan agrees to cede land to the Chinese government.

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The Tajik parliament voted to ratify a deal to cede square kilometers of land in the remote Pamir Mountain range which the Chinese claim thoroughly resolved the century long border dispute. China is the largest investor in the Tajik economy especially in the energy and infrastructure sectors. The structure of government in China is in the framework of a socialist republic which is run by a single party: the Communist Party of China.

The party wishes to control and manage the ideology of their subjects to maintain their political dominance in China. Members of the State Council include the Premier, four vice premiers, five state councilors and 29 heads of State Council commissions.

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Under the Chinese constitution, the National Peoples congress holds the most power and meets annually for two weeks to discuss and review legislative policies. As China has only one dominant party, the spatial patterns of voting and election results are favoring the dominant communist party. However, the country still has some other variables and variations in the divisions of administration.

Local government is divided into four levels of hierarchy. Local government includes township, county, prefecture or municipality, and the province as the scope of government increases.

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China also has a system of autonomous regions intended to give more control to ethnic minorities who preside in those regions. In practice however, the power still remains with the party secretary while the local chairman is the nominal head.


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Historically there have been instances of imperialism in China. Japan had invaded and conquered much of Manchuria and Coastal cities in China in the Sino-Japanese war. Cities such as Nanjing and Hong Kong were devastated by Japanese forces with actions such as massacre and rape of civilians was rampant. This imperialism and invasion of Japanese forces still leads to tensions in modern day. For example, in April , a Japanese junior high textbook minimized the atrocities of Nanjing stating that the massacre was an "incident".

The textbooks transgression sent thousands of Chinese citizens out to protest and three weeks of state sanctioned protest led to rising tensions between Japan and China. Due to the opium wars between the British from to , the British were able to make demands to the Chinese government before removing blockades and stopping bombardment on key ports.

The Chinese agreed to cede the island of Hong Kong which in the control of the British, witnessed phenomenal growth.


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The population grew from 1, to 19, by With the end of World War 2 however, the British lost control of the colonies and in , the colony of Hong Kong was returned to the control of communist mainland China. China has bilateral investment agreements with plus countries and economies. China's bilateral investment agreements cover expropriation, arbitration, and other investment related issues.

These bilateral agreements are generally much weaker than investment treaties that the United States would want to negotiate.

These trade agreements exist to maintain and organize business and trade with various countries in order to improve and expand the economy of China. China in , was reported to have a population of 1,,, So that there would be enough youth to support the old, the government began to allow couples to have 2 children. With this rule, the birth rate increased to The current infant mortality total rate is The people of China are beginning to move from the rural farming areas to the business centered cities. The rate of urbanization from to is at a 2. The life expectancy at birth for the total population stands at Below a population pyramid illustrates the population age structure throughout China.

It can be observed that the youth of China is significantly lower than the working class. However, there is enough people in the working class to support the elders at the time. This can help prove physically the reasoning and push to change the "one child" law, to two. Owing to tremendous differences in latitude, longitude, and altitude, the climate of China is extremely diverse, ranging from tropical in the far south to subarctic in the far north and alpine in the higher elevations of the Tibetan Plateau.

Monsoon winds, caused by differences in the heat-absorbing capacity of the continent and the ocean, dominate the climate. During the summer, the East Asian Monsoon carries warm and moist air from the south and delivers the vast majority of the annual precipitation in much of the country. Conversely, the Siberian anticyclone dominates during winter, bringing cold and comparatively dry conditions.

The advance and retreat of the monsoons account in large degree for the timing of the rainy season throughout the country. Although most of the country lies in the temperate belt, its climatic patterns are complex. The northern extremities of both Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia have a subarctic climate; in contrast, most of Hainan Island and parts of the extreme southern fringes of Yunnan have a tropical climate.

Temperature differences in winter are considerable, but in summer the variance is considerably less. Precipitation is almost invariably concentrated in the warmer months, though annual totals range from less than 20 millimetres 0.

Only in some pockets of the Dzungaria region of Xinjiang is the conspicuous seasonal variation in precipitation that defines Chinese and, to a large extent, East Asian climate absent. Annual sunshine duration ranges from less than 1, hours in parts of Sichuan and Chongqing to over 3, hours in northwestern Qinghai. Seasonal patterns in sunshine vary considerably by region, but overall, the north and the Tibetan Plateau are sunnier than the south of the country. The average annual precipitation in China. The first day of spring brought a massive sandstorm blowing from Inner Mongolia.

Natural color satellite image of a smog event in the heart of northern China. Air pollution sulfur dioxide particulates from reliance on coal is a major issue, along with water pollution from untreated wastes and use of debated standards of pollutant concentration rather than Total Maximum Daily Load. There are water shortages, particularly in the north. The eastern part of China often experiences smoke and dense fog in the atmosphere as a result of industrial pollution.

Heavy deforestation with an estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since to soil erosion and economic development is occurring with resulting desertification.

Geography of China

China has signed, but not ratified, the Kyoto Protocol but is not yet required to reduce its carbon emission under the agreement, as is India and the Nuclear Test Ban treaty. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Geography of the country of China. Geography and climates of China.